Directions for use of Aluminium Phosphide
Published:2014-08-22 22:26:37    Text Size:【BIG】【MEDIUM】【SMALL
1. Commodities which may be fumigated with Aluminum Phosphide:
Aluminum phosphide has been found effective against the following pests and their preadult stage-that is eggs,larvae,and pupae:anchonoma xeraula meyrick,Lyctus brunneus Stephens,etc.
Aluminum phosphide maybe used for the fumigation of raw agricultural commodities,animal feed,processed foods and other non-food items.It may be used to fumigate corn,seeds,animal feed,coffee beans,cocoa beans,nuts in shells,flour,rice,candy,chocolate,cheese,cured,dried and processed meat products and dried fish,tea.tobacco,paper and paper products,etc.
2.Dosage and fumigation period:
The effect of fumigation is decided by the dosage,and fumigating period,that is CT Value(Density of phosphine X Fumigating Period)The CT Value for Phosphine to kill the pests is different from the density.And the forming period is more important than density.Low density and long fumigation period is more effective than high density and short fumigation period.When the CT value is as high as 150gh/m³,all kinds of insects is assured to be killed.
2.1 Recommended Dosages:Dosages are decided by following factors:
a.conditions of storage:
The major factor in selection of dosage is the ability of the structure to hold phosphine during the fumigation.
A well—sealed warehouse may be treated with a low dosage,while a more poorly constructed builing may require the upper end of the dosage range.
b.Types of pests.To kill some anti—pesticide insects such as tribolium castancum requires the upper of the dosage range.Lower dosage is enough to kill some more susceptible insects such as mites.But to kill the less susceptible mites,20% dosage should be added to the upper end of the dosage.Phosphine can kill adult but cannot kill its pupa.
c.Temperature of the fumigating commodities:
The higher the temperature is ,the more effective the fumigating is. When the temperature of the commodities is higher than 25,it requires a lower dosage.
If the temperature is 10--15,the fumigation period should be extended.
d.different types of grain:
The capacities of grains adsorbing phosphine are different,which affect the concerntration of phosphine directly.For example,rice and peanuts adsorb most of the phosphine, then wheat and corn ,and beans,flour the least.So double dosages should be added to the commodities which adsorb more phosphine.
e.Recommended dosages:the following recommended dosage may be more or less zccording to the above mentioned factor:
e.1.Nomal dosage fumigation:
*Bulk stored commodities in warehouse,railcars,trucks,shipholds:
1bag/2-5ton or 1bag/3-10m³
*Bagged commodities,processed food etc.:
0.5-2tablets/m³,3-10 pellets/ m³;1bag/5-14 m³
*Tobacco in cases,barrels or bags:
0.5-1 tablet/m³,3-5 pellets/ m³;1bag/9-14 m³
*Non-food commodities(cotton,feathers,wool or wool products etc)
1-2 tablets/m³,5-10 pellets/ m³;1bag/5-10 m³
*Building fumigation(Food processing plants,warehouse,etc.)
0.5-1tablet/m³,3-5 pellets/ m³;1bag/10-20 m³
e.2.Lower dosage fumigation:
There are four terms:normal,slowly releasing,interval and less oxide fumigations.They are should be acted under sealed sheet.The recommended dosage is 1-2g/m³(equal to 0.3-0.6tablet/m³,1.5-3 pellets/m³,or 1 bags/17-34m³).
e.3.Kill rodent:1-2tablets/cave;5-10pellets/cave.
e.4.Kill moth:0.08-0.15g/whole.Make a tablet into 20-40 pieces or a pellet into 4-8 pieces,a piece is about 0.08-0.15g.
e.5. Fumigation of mushroom house:3-5tablets/m³;15-25pellets/m³.
e.6. Fumigation of white ants in tea trees:0.5-1tablet/a tree,3-5 pellets/ a tree.
2.2 Fumigation Period:
Fumigation Period is decided by many factors such as temperature,humidity,packsge,types of insects,etc.The following dosages are recommended:
a.       Normal dosage:    

Minium exposure period
Above 20℃
Below 5℃
Don’t fumigate
Don’t fumigate

Minium exposure period
Above 25℃
Below 5℃
Don’t fumigate

     The fumigation period should be long enough to allow for complete reaction of aluminum phosphide.Sometimes extending the fumigation period is avaiable.
     The fumigation period dried cereal(moisture<10%)and tight-packaged commodities should be extended.When the temperature of the cereal is lower,the fumigation period could be extended to 10 to 14 days.
b.       Apply pellets,tablets,by probing as the commodities is loaded.Probes should be inserted vertically at intervals along the length and width of the flat storage.Tablets ot pellets may be dropped into the probe at intervals as it is withdrawn.
c.       When the length of the commodity is not more than 2m,surface application may be used if the container can be made sufficiently gas tight to contain the fumigant gas long enough for it to penetrate the commodity.In this instance ,it is advisable to place the tablets or pellets on the tray,no more than 100 tablets or 300 pellets each tray.
d.       When the length of commodities is more than 2m,the dose may be probe below the surface.
e.       Sealing after the application:
e.1.Seal a warehouse:cover the surface of the commodity with a plastic tarpaulin,close all the windows and doors.
e.2.Seal the railcars or trucks:cover the surface with plastic tarpaulin
e.3.Seal a barge:close the cover,then cover a plastic sheet to prevent wind and rain.
e.4.Seal a ship’s hold:close the cover.The wind whole must be sealed carefully.
e.5.Bulk commodities:Be covered with plastic sheet,then seal the edges by sand bags,sands or suitable materials.
*Note:It is not legal to move trucks,trailers,containers,vans,etc. when fumigating until they have been aerated.
3.1.3.Fumigating the packaged commodities under plastic sheet:
Cover the commodity with plastic sheet.Tablet or pellets can be put on the trays or on the metal sheets.Put the trays or sheets at the bottom of the commodities separately,or in the preserved hole at the bottom.Bags can be hung around.After application,seal the edges of the sheets with sand bags,sands or other suitable materials.
3.1.4 Fumigation of packaged commodities in warehouses:
A well-sealed warehouse may be treated by space fumigation.Place trays or sheets of kraft paper or foil,up to 1 ㎡ in area,on the floor through the structure to hold tablets or pellets.Spread aluminum phosphide on the sheet at a density no more than 300 tablets on 800 pellets per 1㎡.Check to see that the aluminum phosphide has not piled up.
3.1.5 Fumigation of packaged commodities in railcars:
a.Processed foods and feeds:not more than 2 tablets or 10 pellets fixed holders.The same as bags fumigant.After application,close all the doors and windows.
b.Other commodities:Put fumigant on trays,sheet of kraft or foil.Then seal the doors and windows.
*Note:It is not legal to move the railcars when fumigating until they have been aerated.
3.2Low dosage fumigation:
3.2.1 Normal fumigation:
Fumigate as normal,but extend the fumigation period.
3.2.2 Slowly releasing Fumigation:
Put the needed dose separately into PE bags,then dig in commodities.So they can release phosphine slowly in a sealed space.
3.2.3 Interval fumigation:
Apply the dose 2 to 3 times to the commodities every 7-10 days.
3.2.4 Less oxide fumigation:
When the concerntration of oxide in the sealed commodities is ia as low as below 12%,apply the dose to get a better effect.
3.3 Fumigation of buildings (processing food plant,warehouse etc.).Before fumigation,carefully seal the space.Spread the tablets or pellets on trays,sheet of kraft paper or foil(see close and seal the doors leading to the fumigating space.
3.4 Kill the rodent:
Aluminum phosphide may be used to kill the rodent.Throw the tablets or pellets into the caves the animals’ living.Then seal the caves with stone,grass and soil,etc.
3.5 Kill the moth:
Make the dose into pieces,then put one or two into the moth’s holes in the trees.Seal the holes with moist soil.
3.6 Kill the insect in the mushrooms’ house:
Seal the house properly according to the structure.The dosage are decided by the area of the house.I meter between two beds needs 2-4 tablets or 10-20 pellets,which is put on paper.If the temperature is above 20℃.fumigation period will be 24 hours.If the temperature is 11-15℃,the period should be 48-72 hours.But if fumigation time is too long,for example,more than 48 hours ,the color of mushrooms will change.So before fumigation,it is better to pick up all the mushrooms.
3.7 Kill the white ants in twa trees:
Make a hole in tree,put tablets or pellets into it,then seal it with soil.
4 .Aeration of fumigated commodities:
After fumigation,open the doors,windows or plastic tarpaulins etc.Aerate the spaces under fumigation until it is verified that it contains no more than 0.3ppm phosphine.
5.Disposal of the residual dust:
The residual dust remaining after a fumigation should be collected and disposal at approved sites.It may be deactivated using the dry method.Dust should be deactivated outdoors,in a dry location away from inhabited building.”Wet method”:Deactivating solution is prepared by adding the appropriate amount of low-sudsing detergent to water in a drum or other suitable container.Residual dust is poured slowly into the solution and stirred so as to thoroughly wet all of the particles.Dispose of the deactivated dust/water suspension with or without preliminary decanting,at an appoved sanitary landfill.The deactivating solution may be poured onto the ground.
6 .SAFETY summary:
Using Aluminum phosphide must follow the relative rules and instructions for the safe use of it.
6.1 Avoid inhaling toxicity of phosphine.Wear uniform and gloves.When appling the aluminum phosphide,do not eat or smoke.A respirator should be worn by the person.
6.2 Never fumigate alone from inside the storage structure.The fumigate storage structure,should be away from inhabited buildings more than 20 meters.During the fumigation,make sure that no leakage or flame.Post warning placards on fumigated area.If workers must enter the incompletely aerated space,they are to wear respiratory protection.
5.6.3 Never open fumigant containers in a flammable atmosphere.It is preferable to open them in open air.Point flask away from face and body when opening.When open in winter,if it flashes,wait a minute,then it will die away itself.Never flush with water.
6.4 During fumigation,no rain leaking and flammable atmosphere at site.Never pile up the tablets,pellets or bags.Once inflame,put out it with dried sands.Never flush it by water.
6.5 Foods or processed cereal can never contact with aluminum phosphide directly .Foods and feeds must be aerated for at least ten days.Small amount of these commodities must be aerated for five days prior to offering them to the end consumer.
6.6 Phosphine may react with certain metals and cause corrosion.Metals such as copper,gold,silver are susceptible to corrosion by phosphine.Thus,metal devices and equipment should be protected or removed before fumigation.
6.7 It is also permissible to remove empty flasks outdoors until residue in the flasks is reacted.Rinse flasks and stoppers with water.The aluminum plastic bags and lined plastic bags should be disposed carefully and never used again.The drying agent bags should be collected and digged in a sanitary landfill.
6.8 Once opened for fumigation,the flasks of tablets and pellets may be tightly reseald and stored for future use.Containers ofAluminum phosphide bags cannot be resealed for future use.The damaged bags can not be placed back into the container.dispose them properly.
6.9 During transport,keep the aluminum phosphide away from water,rain and heat.Never contact with acid.Gas mask with a phosphine canister should be taken with the person .Store aluminum phosphide in a dry,well-ventilated place.The damaged cases should be disposed properly.If the original flasksare damaged,place the collected tablets or pellets in a sound metal container.
7. Fumigation of small amount grain:
Since 1980’s,aluminum phosphide in tubes have been manufactured to meet the needs of famers and inhabitants.This small packsged tablets are popular with the farmers for the high efficiency and low cost.
Application procedures:
a.       Dosage:3-8tablets or 15-40 pellets/ton;2-5tablets or 10-25pellets/m³
b.       Fumigation period:at least 5-7 days,may be extended if necessary
c.       Procedures:
*Bulk grain:load the grain in a big tank or case.Dig the dose package in cloth bag into the grain. Cover the surface with plastic sheet,then seal it carefully.
*Bags grain:Put grain bags in a bid plastic bag,give aluminum phosphide bags,then tight it closely.It is also available to cover the piles of grain bags with plastic sheet after apply the aluminum phosphide in bag,then seal the edge of the plastic sheet with soil.
*Farmera storehouse of more grain:Be fumigated as normal procedures,well sealed.
*After fumigation,aerate the grain for at least 5 days.
Take out the bags of aluminum phosphide.The residual dust may be disposed of at an sanitary landfill.